Once you drive an electric vehicle (EV), you’ll see why EV owners love their cars. They perform better, are cheaper to operate, and require very little maintenance. Instead of paying high costs for gasoline/petrol, EV owners generally charge with cleaner energy where they live, at work, or somewhere in their neighborhoods. Plus, an EV can dramatically reduce harmful emissions, helping to create a healthier future.
$45,000 - $150,000
About the technology
Types of EVs: All-electric vehicles (also called battery-electric vehicles, BEVs) are powered solely by electricity, while plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs) can run on either electricity or gasoline/petrol. When they run out of electricity, PHEVs switch to the backup fuel for their energy source.
Driving Range: Many BEVs are available with driving ranges from about 115 miles to well over 400 miles (185 to 645 km). PHEVs have smaller batteries and can normally travel between 15 – 55 miles (25 – 90 km) on a full charge.
Upfront Cost: EVs have higher upfront costs than equivalent gasoline/petrol vehicles, but incentives are sometimes available that make them more affordable.
Total Cost: They are generally more cost effective than gasoline/petrol vehicles when you consider the total cost of ownership. This is partly because electricity is cheaper per mile traveled and maintenance costs are lower.
Environment: A typical gasoline/petrol-powered car can produce more than 4 tonnes of CO2 emissions per year. By driving an EV, you can easily cut these emissions by half or more.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
1. Why consider electrifying your ride?
Once you drive an electric vehicle (EV), you’ll see why EV owners love their cars. They perform better, are cheaper to operate, and require very little maintenance. Instead of paying high costs for petrol/diesel, EV owners generally charge with cleaner energy where they live, at work, or somewhere in their neighborhoods. Plus, an EV can dramatically reduce harmful emissions, helping to create a healthier future.
2. What are electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)?
While most vehicles are fueled solely by petrol/diesel, an EV is powered by electricity. There are two main types of EVs. An all-electric vehicle (also known as a battery electric vehicle, or BEV) is powered solely by electricity. Another type of EV, the plug-in hybrid EV (PHEV), can run on both electricity and on petrol/diesel. PHEVs normally have smaller batteries and shorter electric ranges (such as 25 – 85 km) than BEVs. When they run out of electricity, they switch to petrol/diesel for their energy source. This means that a PHEV will often operate on its electric motor while driving around town and on its petrol/diesel engine for longer trips.
3. Are hybrid electric vehicles (such as the original Toyota Prius) electric vehicles?
No. Pure hybrid electric vehicles get all their energy from petrol/diesel — they cannot be manually recharged like battery electric vehicles or plug-in hybrid EVs. Pure hybrids use a small battery and an internal combustion engine in combination that allows for greater efficiency. This, along with regenerative braking and other features, allows pure hybrids to achieve much better mileage and lower emissions than conventional petrol/diesel vehicles.
4. How far can an electric vehicle drive after a full charge?
A host of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are available with ranges varying from about 150 km to over 650 km. Those with shorter ranges are fine for local and city driving. Those with longer ranges can be used for long trips, especially given the increasing availability of fast-charging stations in many areas. Plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have smaller battery packs than BEVs and can normally travel between 25 – 85 km on a full charge. However, they have petrol/diesel backup for longer drives, so the range is much less of an issue.
1. Are EVs expensive?
EVs generally have a higher up-front cost than petrol/diesel vehicles, but many EV models are available in Australia today for under $50,000 which is a bit higher than the national average new car sales price. On top of that, state, federal, and utility incentives can take thousands of dollars off the price, making them even more affordable. Importantly, looking at the total cost of ownership, including the purchase cost (or lease cost), rebates and tax incentives, fuel costs, maintenance, insurance, etc., EVs can be cheaper than petrol/diesel-powered vehicles without the hassle of going to the gas station and without generating local air emissions.
2. What’s the energy cost to operate an EV?
Petrol/diesel is not only more polluting than electricity, it’s also more expensive. You’ll save on energy costs by switching to an EV. The level of savings will depend on a number of factors such as your electricity rates, your local petrol/diesel costs, and your type of car. However, using average costs in Australia, a dollar of electricity will take you more than twice as far as a dollar of petrol/diesel.
1. Are electric vehicles dependable?
Since EVs have many fewer moving parts than a petrol/diesel vehicle, they are significantly more reliable. In addition, they require much less maintenance because there’s no need to change the oil, spark plugs, etc. Furthermore, with regenerative braking, your EV’s brakes will last longer.
2. How long do EV batteries last?
Most EV manufacturers guarantee their batteries for up to 8 years or 160,000 km and Tesla has reportedly designed its batteries to last for 500,000 to 800,000 km. With any EV, there will be some battery degradation over time, and this translates into reduced range. For example, an EV with a 500 km original range and 20% battery degradation after 10 years (which is typical), is still a 400 km range EV and perfectly usable.
1. How much do cars contribute to emissions?
The vast majority of transportation emissions in Australia and around the world come from cars and trucks, and nearly 60% of those emissions are from the cars that we drive every day. The typical petrol/diesel-powered car will produce 4-8 tonnes of CO2 per year, so the purchase of this type of car generally means that 75 tonnes of additional emissions will be released into the atmosphere over an average car’s lifespan. An EV can cut these emissions in half, or much more if you charge your EV with electricity that’s largely produced from solar, wind, or hydropower.
2. What about the batteries? Are there emissions from their manufacture, and are they toxic?
Battery manufacture does result in additional emissions, but these are generally made up for in about a year due to the lower driving emissions of an EV. Regarding toxicity, the predominant battery type currently used in EVs (Lithium-ion), contains materials that can be hazardous if released into the environment. Accordingly, as with all types of batteries, proper recycling is required at the end of life, and recycling is now becoming more available for these types of batteries. Additionally, once aging batteries are no longer suited for EVs, they can often be repurposed in “second-life” stationary storage applications. Finally, the EV industry is working on solid-state batteries that should be smaller, safer, and longer-lived than conventional Lithium-ion batteries.
3. Will EVs require the construction of additional power plants?
Having more EVs/PHEVs on the road doesn’t necessarily mean more power plants will be needed. It mostly depends on when the vehicles are charged. Many conventional plants are only used during peak-demand periods and are idle during off-peak periods (such as at night). Charging EVs when excess generation capacity is available can reduce the need for new plant construction. In addition, with emerging vehicle-to-grid (V2G) approaches, electricity stored in vehicle batteries can be used by the grid during peak-demand hours, further reducing the need for new plants and also making the grid more stable.
4. How do the overall emissions compare to petrol/diesel cars when taking power plant emissions into account?
An EV’s emissions will vary regionally, depending on the source of the electricity used to charge it. On average, however, EVs in Australia produce 40 – 50% less emissions than petrol/diesel powered vehicles, even when taking into account the production of the batteries. Also, with the increasing use of renewable electricity from sources such as the sun and wind (which have no greenhouse gas emissions from operations), the grid-supplied electricity used to power most EVs is getting cleaner all the time. Of course, when charged with 100% renewable energy, such as from rooftop solar, wind, or clean hydro power, an EV will produce zero driving emissions.
5. What else can I do to reduce my transportation emissions?
Steps like taking public transportation, riding a bike (or an electric bike), and reducing your air travel are additional great ways to reduce transportation emissions. These approaches can also produce other benefits such as lower costs, reduced traffic congestion, shorter commute times, and improved fitness.
1. How quickly can you charge an EV?
The rate at which you can charge an EV depends on the car and the type of charger. Chargers are categorized as Level 2 single-phase, Level 2 three-phase, or Level 3. Level 2 single-phase charging means AC charging from a typical 230V home electrical outlet and will usually deliver 20 – 45 km of charge per hour of charging, which is fine for most city driving situations.
Level 2 three-phase charging involves charging from a AC 230V 3-phase circuit, which usually delivers up to 130 km of charge per hour of charging. This type of circuit can be installed in your home if 3-phase AC is available. This is the type of charger that is typically available at most commercial chargers and works for all EVs. Most charging stations that businesses supply for employees are Level 2 3-phase, and these are also often available at public parking lots and garages.
Level 3 charging is also called DC fast charging and uses a 480V circuit. This technology can provide as much as 500 km of range in 30 minutes or less, depending on the vehicle and the charger. This level is only available at commercial charging stations and is not always compatible with all EV types though of late it is becoming standard. It requires a CCS fast charging port on the EV.
2. How do I charge an EV at home?
Many people worry that they will have to put in an expensive charger to power their EV. This is an option but not usually required. Your car will come with a portable mobile charger that can be plugged into any 230V wall socket as long as no other large appliances use that circuit. This type of charger will typically provide only about 20 – 45 km of battery charge for every hour the car is plugged in. This will usually be plenty to cover most daily driving situations since most cars are driven less than 50 km per day in Australia . If you need more than that, a 3-phase AC circuit needs to be available in or near the garage or driveway. This allows for up to 130 km of charging per hour.
Wall-mounted charging stations are sometimes installed at homes, but these are not required. Instead, you can use a portable charger that plugs into a 230V wall socket. On the car side, most chargers in Australia use the standard Mennekes connector and so there are no compatibility issues. Some cars use the J connector standard that is popular in Asia and the US. For such cars a Mennekes to J adapter is available. (Teslas have a different adapter that allows for the use of a Mennekes charger).
3. How can I charge an EV if I live in an apartment building or am on a long trip?
An increasing number of apartment buildings are installing chargers, often at the request of their tenants. For those tenants without this option, charging at work is sometimes a good approach. Chargers at office complexes are normally Level 2 chargers that can add 40 – 120 km of charge per hour. Another alternative is to find a Level 3 or CCS fast charger nearby, such as at a shopping center. Often you can charge up while buying groceries, watching a movie, or working out at the gym.
4. How can I charge an EV on a long trip?
This is becoming easier all the time. More EVs are becoming available with ranges of 300 – 500 km and more fast charging CCS stations are being deployed every month. Tesla has done a great job of installing Superchargers along many major highways in most populated parts of Eastern Australia . They are strategically located so that it is possible to travel along the East coast of Australia with a few stops along the way. Other fast charging stations are also coming up along major highways. Smartphone apps are available to help drivers locate chargers near their homes or along the route of an upcoming road trip.
1. What types of incentives are available for EVs?
There are no federal level incentives for buying EVs in Australia but there are various state and utility level incentives. Taken together, these incentives can take thousands of dollars off the sticker prices, registration fees and taxes, in some places, making them much more affordable.